Comminution

Flowability of Crumbler Rotary Shear Size-Reduced Granular Biomass: An Experiment-Informed Modeling Study on the Angle of Repose

Abstract Biomass has potential as a carbon-neutral alternative to petroleum for chemical and energy products. However, complete replacement of fossil fuel is contingent upon efficient processes to eliminate undesirable characteristics of biomass, e.g., low bulk density, variability, and storage-induced quality problems. Mechanical size reduction via comminution is a processing operation to engineer favorable biomass flowability …

Flowability of Crumbler Rotary Shear Size-Reduced Granular Biomass: An Experiment-Informed Modeling Study on the Angle of Repose Read More »

Measurement of Transport Properties of Woody Biomass Feedstock Particles Before and After Pyrolysis by Numerical Analysis of X-Ray Tomographic Reconstructions

Abstract Lignocellulosic biomass has a complex, species-specific microstructure that governs heat and mass transport during conversion processes. A quantitative understanding of the evolution of pore size and structure is critical to optimize conversion processes for biofuel and bio-based chemical production. Further, improving our understanding of the microstructure of biochar coproduct will accelerate development of its …

Measurement of Transport Properties of Woody Biomass Feedstock Particles Before and After Pyrolysis by Numerical Analysis of X-Ray Tomographic Reconstructions Read More »

Investigation of Cutter-Woodchip Contact Pressure in a New Biomass Comminution System

Abstract A Crumbler® rotary shear system was recently developed to process fuel-grade woodchips into feedstocks having more uniform particle sizes for improved flowability and higher thermochemical output yield than a traditional hammer mill. It represents a significant innovation in the state of the art of biomass comminution equipment. However, the milling unit has experienced significant …

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Wood chips in Crumbler

Woody Biomass Size Reduction with Selective Material Orientation

Abstract  Roundwood logs from forests and energy plantations must be chipped, ground, or otherwise comminuted into small particles prior to conversion to solid or liquid biofuels. Results & discussion: Rotary veneer followed by cross-grain shearing is demonstrated to be a novel and low energy consuming method for primary breakdown of logs into a raw material …

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Crumbler Cutterset

Beneficiation of Chipped and Shredded Woody Biomass

Abstract Forest Concepts, with funding from USDA NIFA SBIR program, developed methods and equipment to reprocess low-value dirty forest chips, tree service chips, and hog fuel into high value clean wood fiber and other valuable fractions. Traditional clean sources of mill residuals (sawdust, shavings, and chips) are declining rapidly due to improved sawmilling efficiencies and …

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Crumbles with Hand

Shear Processing of Wood Chips into Feedstock Particles

Abstract We have an objective to convert cellulosic biomass raw materials into small particles that are optimized for biochemical and/or thermochemical conversion to liquid transportation fuels. As a side effort, we are interested in producing feedstocks for composite bioproducts, solid biofuels, and other uses. Wood chips that have a typical length of 50mm are a …

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Crumbles Pile

Low-Energy Comminution of Woody Biomass to Create Precision Feedstock Particles

Abstract  Under funding from DOE Office of Biomass Programs, engineers at Forest Concepts are working to apply low-energy comminution methods to produce improved biomass particle geometry and sizes optimal for biochemical and thermochemical conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Designs are constrained to concurrently achieve the DOE Uniform Feedstock Format criteria for bulk handling and flowability. …

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Simple experimental set up with EC meter, timer, and hot plate stirring device

Application of Buckmaster Electrolyte Ion Leakage Test to Woody Biofuel Feedstocks

Abstract In an earlier ASABE paper, Buckmaster reported that ion conductivity of biomass leachate in aqueous solution was directly correlated with activity access to plant nutrients within the biomass materials for subsequent biological or chemical processing. The Buckmaster test involves placing a sample of the particles in a beaker of constant-temperature deionized water and monitoring …

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Motor mount swing, torque arm, and force transducer

Torque-Arm Method to Measure Specific Energy in Laboratory Scale Biomass Preprocessing Equipment

Abstract  Specific energy for comminution and mechanical processing of lignocellulosic feedstocks provides an economically important basis to compare equipment and to provide data for lifecycle analysis of complete systems. Measurement of specific energy during equipment design and development activities enables optimization of design parameters. Forest Concepts developed a torque-arm apparatus and LabView data acquisition method …

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Crushed Roundwood

Modeling Energy Consumption for Crushing of Roundwood as a First Stage of Feedstock Preparation

Abstract  Our objective is to apply an understanding of the modes of failure and structural biology to substantially reduce the comminution energy required to produce bioenergy feedstocks. This paper explores the modes of failure for wood materials subject to crushing forces and how they could be used to develop a mathematical model of crushing forces …

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