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38 documents returned

Publications

Field experience with wood-strand erosion control mulch on mine and pipeline projects

Dooley, J.H. 2013. Field experience with wood-strand erosion control mulch on mine and pipeline projects. Paper presented at the 2013 National Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation, Laramie, WY Reclamation Across Industries June 1 - 6, 2013. R.I. Barnhisel (Ed.) Published by ASMR, 3134 Montavesta Rd., Lexington, KY 40502.

Field experience with wood-strand erosion control mulch on mine and pipeline projects

Abstract:

Soil erosion is a significant risk during and after grading operations on mine and pipeline sites. A range of materials are commercially available to reduce the erosive effects of wind and/or rainfall, including agricultural straw, hydraulic mulches, and rolled erosion blankets. Each of the conventional materials have limitations sufficient enough that federal agencies supported development of a new material beginning in 2002 that would be long-lasting, wind resistant, naturally weed-free, and could be transported and applied using conventional hay and straw methods. Three years of research and development resulted in a wood-strand material that is optimized for technical performance and ease of application. More than 15,000 tonnes of the wood-strand material has been used on a range of road, post-wildfire, watershed protection, streambank and other uses across federal, state, and private lands in the western United States. Among the federally sponsored projects have been many abandoned mine lands (AML) sites. When permitting or contracting new mine and pipeline projects, Federal land agencies including the Bureau of Land Management and the USDA Forest Service have recommended or specified the new material or specified that erosion control materials used must meet its technical performance. Since its commercial introduction in 2005, wood-strand erosion control mulch has been used on at least fifteen mine and pipeline projects in eight western states. This paper reviews the science and design process that led to the technical features of the wood-strand mulch. The paper reports results of a recent survey of land managers, project leaders, and erosion control contractors to assess performance versus design criteria for the material. Results of the survey indicate that engineered wood-strand mulches offer viable wind and water erosion control while providing additional benefits of being weed-free, long-lasting, and wind-resistant. Results of the survey are being used to improve the material and update guidelines for its specification and use for erosion control on mines, pipelines, and other severely disturbed areas.

Woody biomass size reduction with selective material orientation

Dooley, J.H., D.N. Lanning, and C.J. Lanning. 2013. Woody biomass size reduction with selective material orientation. Biofuels 4(1):35-43.

Woody biomass size reduction with selective material orientation

Abstract:

Roundwood logs from forests and energy plantations must be chipped, ground, or otherwise comminuted into small particles prior to conversion to solid or liquid biofuels. Results & discussion: Rotary veneer followed by cross-grain shearing is demonstrated to be a novel and low energy consuming method for primary breakdown of logs into a raw material having high transport and storage density. Processing of high-moisture raw logs into 2.5-4.2-mm particles prior to drying or conversion consumes less than 20% of the energy required for achieving similar particle size with hammer mills, while producing a more uniform particle shape and size. Conclusion: Energy savings from the proposed method may reduce the comminution cost of woody feedstocks by more than half.

Beneficiation of chipped and shredded woody biomass

Dooley, J. H., D. N. Lanning, and C. J. Lanning. 2012. Beneficiation of chipped and shredded woody biomass. ASABE Paper No. 12-1337408. 11. St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Biological and Agricultural Engineers.

Beneficiation of chipped and shredded woody biomass

Abstract:

Forest Concepts, with funding from USDA NIFA SBIR program, developed methods and equipment to reprocess low-value dirty forest chips, tree service chips, and hog fuel into high value clean wood fiber and other valuable fractions. Traditional clean sources of mill residuals (sawdust, shavings, and chips) are declining rapidly due to improved sawmilling efficiencies and a general decline in the number of sawmills in operation. Thus, competition for low-cost clean fiber is intense. A USDA NIFA SBIR supported beneficiation project sought to increase the clean fiber supply by tapping low grade, often inexpensive or negative cost raw materials. To validate the SBIR funded engineering science work, our engineers designed and built a set of demonstration-scale (one ton per hour) machines that can be mixed and matched to clean low grade woody biomass to meet nearly any ash or bark content specification. Results of validation tests demonstrate the performance of innovative methods for cleaning high-ash land clearing debris.

Advances in Woody Biomass Drying by Taking Advantage of Surface Properties

Lanning C.J, Fridley, J.L.. 2012. Advances in Woody Biomass Drying by Taking Advantage of Surface Properties. ASABE Paper No. 12-1337119. St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

Advances in Woody Biomass Drying by Taking Advantage of Surface Properties

Abstract:

Comprehensive models for grain drying have been derived using critical data available from literature dating back to Shedd's 1953 work on pressure drop. Although dryer design data for grains and many industrial materials are known, Forest Concepts has developed data and evidence that biomass feedstocks are sufficiently unique that published design data is not applicable. Adaptations of grain models to woody biomass are difficult as many of the coefficients used in the models are unknown. Further, typical grain drying temperatures, around 65°C, are well below the "low" temperature of 100°C often targeted in cellulosic feedstock preparation. Forest Concepts is developing a model to better understand wood biomass drying, particularly in the context of conversion processes. Experimental data shows that the drying rate of Crumbles® precision particles is increased by nearly 100% when compared to equivalent traditional wood particles by taking advantage of biological properties. Checked surface properties of Crumbles® particles expedited diffusion rate of liquid to the wood surface thereby reducing total energy cost of drying. Expedited drying creates an opportunity for smaller dryers at reduced capital cost for equivalent throughput.

Shear processing of wood chips into feedstock particles

Lanning, D. N., J. H. Dooley, and C. J. Lanning. 2012b. Shear processing of wood chips into feedstock particles. ASABE Paper No. 12-1337113. 11. St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Biological and Agricultural Engineers.

Shear processing of wood chips into feedstock particles

Abstract:

We have an objective to convert cellulosic biomass raw materials into small particles that are optimized for biochemical and/or thermochemical conversion to liquid transportation fuels. As a side effort, we are interested in producing feedstocks for composite bioproducts, solid biofuels, and other uses. Wood chips that have a typical length of 50mm are a common raw material. This experiment seeks to evaluate the change in particle sieve analysis, geometric mean dimension, and particle shape as wood chips are processed through one or more rotary shear configurations as well as to determine the incremental specific energy consumption. Wood chips processed by two passes through a 4.8mm cutter set changed the geometric mean dimension from 26.4mm to 5.6mm at a total cost of less 30MJ/odt. Additional combinations are discussed.

Low-energy comminution of woody biomass to create precision feedstock particles

Lanning, D. N., J. H. Dooley, and C. J. Lanning. 2012a. Low-energy comminution of woody biomass to create precision feedstock particles. ASABE Paper No. 12-1337409. 10. St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Biological and Agricultural Engineers.

Low-energy comminution of woody biomass to create precision feedstock particles

Abstract:

Under funding from DOE Office of Biomass Programs, engineers at Forest Concepts are working to apply low-energy comminution methods to produce improved biomass particle geometry and sizes optimal for biochemical and thermochemical conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Designs are constrained to concurrently achieve the DOE Uniform Feedstock Format criteria for bulk handling and flowability. The innovative comminution process independently controls shearing of biomass feedstocks parallel to the fiber orientation and cross-grain. Short-length cross grain shearing opens particles to high mass transport and eliminates fiber balls and other materials handling problems typically associated with hammer milling. The process is currently operating routinely at laboratory scale (200 kg/shift) on woody materials at a roundwood to 2mm cubic particle at a specific energy cost of approximately 150 MJ/odMg.

Application of Buckmaster electrolyte ion leakage test to woody biofuel feedstocks

Broderick, T.F., and J.H. Dooley. 2011. Application of Buckmaster electrolyte ion leakage test to woody biofuel feedstocks. ASABE Paper No. 1111089. St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

Application of Buckmaster electrolyte ion leakage test to woody biofuel feedstocks

Abstract:

In an earlier ASABE paper, Buckmaster reported that ion conductivity of biomass leachate in aqueous solution was directly correlated with activity access to plant nutrients within the biomass materials for subsequent biological or chemical processing. The Buckmaster test involves placing a sample of the particles in a beaker of constant-temperature deionized water and monitoring the change in electrical conductivity over time. We adapted the Buckmaster method to a range of woody biomass and other cellulosic bioenergy feedstocks. Our experimental results suggest differences of electrolyte leakage between differently processed woody biomass particles may be an indicator of their utility for conversion in bioenergy processes. This simple assay appears to be particularly useful to compare different biomass comminution techniques and particle sizes for biochemical preprocessing.

Modeling Energy Consumption for Crushing of Roundwood as a First Stage of Feedstock Preparation

Dooley, J.H., C. Lanning, and D.N. Lanning. 2011. Modeling energy consumption for crushing of roundwood as a first stage of feedstock preparation. ASABE Paper No. 1111085. St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

Modeling Energy Consumption for Crushing of Roundwood as a First Stage of Feedstock Preparation

Abstract:

Our objective is to apply an understanding of the modes of failure and structural biology to substantially reduce the comminution energy required to produce bioenergy feedstocks. This paper explores the modes of failure for wood materials subject to crushing forces and how they could be used to develop a mathematical model of crushing forces for a round roller acting on a round log. Our hypothesis is that crushing or roller-splitting is a low-energy and effective method to reduce the thickness of round logs and change the resulting shape for subsequent processing. Modes of failure during crushing suggest that a mathematical model could be developed to estimate required crushing forces and energy for round logs. Such a model has been called for since early work by the USDA Forest Products Laboratory and Tennessee Valley Authority more than 30 years ago. A model was developed by the authors and experimentally validated for the case of a round roller compressing a round log.

Structured Interview Guide and Template for Specification of Woody Biomass Fuel and Feedstocks

Dooley, J.H., D.N. Lanning, and C. Lanning. 2011. Structured interview guide and template for specification of woody biomass fuel and feedstocks. ASABE Paper No. 1111088. St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

Structured Interview Guide and Template for Specification of Woody Biomass Fuel and Feedstocks

Abstract:

Lack of full technical specification for biomass fuels and feedstocks is a major source of confusion, uncertainty, and conflict throughout the supply chain. With support from US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Energy, we have interviewed scores of industry participants and reviewed both the scientific and commercial literature to develop a template for specification of biomass materials. The resulting structured interview guide and template for documenting specifications can be situationally modified for various feedstocks, conversion processes and end products. The template emphasizes physical properties, biogeometric dimensional properties, and anatomical content.

Field Experience with Street Legal Square Baler for Woody Biomass

Dooley, J.H., D.N. Lanning, and C. Lanning. 2011. Field experience with street legal square baler for woody biomass. ASABE Paper No. 1111090. St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

Field Experience with Street Legal Square Baler for Woody Biomass

Abstract:

We conducted a problem analysis in 2005 to recommend an optimal method for collection, transport, and handling of woody biomass in urban centers, suburban landscapes, and forested areas. The analysis concluded that street-legal biomass balers should replace tow-behind chippers to enable woody biomass to be packaged and handled just like other recyclables. Design and development of an engineering prototype street-legal baler for woody biomass was completed in early 2008. Two years of testing and demonstrations in urban, suburban, and forest settings have produced a wealth of technical and market information that will inform commercialization of woody biomass baling technologies. This paper reports on the results of baling and logistics trials across a range of operating environments and biomass materials.

Protocol for Assessing Particle Shape of Comminuted Biomass

Dooley, J.H., D.N. Lanning, and G. Broderick. 2011. Protocol for assessing particle shape of comminuted biomass. ASABE Paper No. 1111086. St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

Protocol for Assessing Particle Shape of Comminuted Biomass

Abstract:

Particle shape is increasingly important as a quality parameter for comminuted biomass. Shape affects flowability, pretreatment, rate of conversion, and performance of materials handling systems. This protocol applies to materials that have been subjected to commutation processes including but not limited to chunking, chipping, grinding or milling. Our objective is to enable a uniform terminology and method for characterizing particle shape of chipped, ground, or otherwise comminuted woody biomass. The protocol was specifically developed for chipped and ground woody biomass and may be applicable to other lignocellulosic raw materials and feedstocks. Results are presented for analysis of chipped and shredded forest derived woody biomass.

Mode of failure model for cutting solid section biomass

Lanning, D.N., C. Lanning, J.L. Fridley, J.H. Dooley, M. DeTray. 2008. Mode of failure model for cutting solid section biomass. ASABE Paper No. 085111. ASABE. St. Joseph, MI. 20 pp.

Mode of failure model for cutting solid section biomass

Abstract:

Solid section biomass, such as wood and the node-zone of crop residues, has distinct modes of failure when loaded in cross grain shear. Shear bar design plays a part in determining what the failure mode will be at a given depth of penetration. Other factors include shear location relative to an unconstrained end and species type. In order to design a low energy consuming shear bar for agricultural and industrial machinery such as balers and choppers, one needs to develop a predictive model of the failure modes to minimize energy consumption. Utilizing a purpose built instrumented shear test apparatus, we have developed a set of equations and a governing model to predict failure mode and force required shearing solid section biomass. Our tests involved multiple cross sectional areas, 3 shear bar designs, and multiple cross sectional shapes.

Torque-arm method to measure specific energy in laboratory scale biomass preprocessing equipment

Lanning, D.N., J.H. Dooley, and C. Lanning. 2011. Torque-arm method to measure specific energy in laboratory scale biomass preprocessing equipment. ASABE Paper 1111087. St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

Torque-arm method to measure specific energy in laboratory scale biomass preprocessing equipment

Abstract:

Specific energy for comminution and mechanical processing of lignocellulosic feedstocks provides an economically important basis to compare equipment and to provide data for lifecycle analysis of complete systems. Measurement of specific energy during equipment design and development activities enables optimization of design parameters. Forest Concepts developed a torque-arm apparatus and LabView data acquisition method that has proven to be easily adapted for preprocessing equipment such as orbital sieves, flail debarkers, and comminution machinery. We provide a comparison of torque-based energy measurement versus electrical motor current based measurement to demonstrate the limitations of motor current methods.

A wood-strand material for wind erosion control: effects on total sediment loss

Copeland, N.S., B.S. Sharratt, J.Q. Wu, R.B. Foltz, and J.H. Dooley. 2009. A wood-strand material for wind erosion control: effects on total sediment loss, PM10 vertical flux, and PM10 loss. Journal of Environmental Quality 38:139-148.

A wood-strand material for wind erosion control: effects on total sediment loss

Abstract:

Fugitive dust from eroding land poses risks to environmental quality and human health, and thus, is regulated nationally based on ambient air quality standards for particulate matter with mean aerodynamic diameter <= 10 µm (PM10) established in the Clean Air Act. Agricultural straw has been widely used for rainfall-induced erosion control; however, its performance for wind erosion mitigation has been less studied, in part because straw is mobile at moderate wind velocities. A woodbased long-strand material has been developed for rainfallinduced erosion control and has shown operational promise for control of wind-induced erosion and dust emissions from disturbed sites. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of both agricultural straw and wood-strand materials in controlling wind erosion and fugitive dust emissions under laboratory conditions. Wind tunnel tests were conducted to compare wood strands of several geometries to agricultural wheat straw and bare soil in terms of total sediment loss, PM10 vertical flux, and PM10 loss. Results indicate that the types of wood strands tested are stable at wind speeds of up to 18 m s^-1, while wheat straw is only stable at speeds of up to 6.5 m s^-1. Wood strands reduced total sediment loss and PM10 emissions by 90% as compared to bare soil across the range of wind speeds tested. Wheat straw did not reduce total sediment loss for the range of speeds tested, but did reduce PM10 emissions by 75% compared to a bare soil at wind speeds of up to 11 m s^-1.

Square Bales of Woody Biomass for Improved Logistics

Dooley, J.H., D. N. Lanning, C. Lanning, T.F. Broderick, J.L. Fridley. 2009. Square bales of woody biomass for improved logistics. Paper No. 81. Society of American Foresters Annual International Meeting. Orlando, FL. 10 pp.

Square Bales of Woody Biomass for Improved Logistics

Abstract:

The majority of fuels reduction work is conducted by hand crews in the wildlandurban interface and near in-forest recreation/administrative assets. Today, most of the biomass is either piled for burning at some future time or is dragged to the roadside for chipping. In many districts, disposal of chipped or whole brush is costly. However, if the material could be densified into a form that makes it easily transportable, it may be directed to bioenergy firms distant from the project site. Engineering research led to the development of street-legal balers specifically designed to bale woody biomass and replace many of the tow-behind chippers used by agencies, tree service firms, and forest management contractors today. A moment-method study of an engineering prototype was conducted to determine how baler and ground crew unit operations contributed to total cycle time. Although total productivity of more than one bale per hour was adequate to support hand-crews, improvements to ground operations and loader operator strategies resulted in a quick 30% production increase.

Interfacing Forest Engineering with Bioenergy Production

Dooley, J.H. 2008. Interfacing forest engineering with bioenergy production. ASABE Paper No. 080040. ASABE. St. Joseph, MI. 15 pp.

Interfacing Forest Engineering with Bioenergy Production

Abstract:

Woody biomass from forestland, urban greenbelts, and residential areas has the potential to provide more than 150 million tons per year of cellulosic feedstocks for biorefineries, pellet fuels, and fermentation. Production sites range from urban lots to large wildland forest tracts. Destinations range from small urban boutiques to large remote industrial complexes. The systems, logistics and equipment will need to be matched to the context of each combination of source and destination. This paper offers a discussion and postulates an operational context for planning equipment, business models, and logistics systems that may represent the likely evolution of the woody biomass feedstock industry. The context includes thousands of very small producers and users, and a continuum toward a few very large industrial complexes. Forest engineers are the logical engineering professionals to expanding their practices to include urban sources and new woody biomass uses. A premise is that forest engineers are well equipped to address issues of materials collection, handling, preprocessing into commercially valuable feedstocks, and transportation systems to move large volumes of woody biomass to market.

Biomass Baling into Large Square Bales for Efficient Transport, Storage, and Handling

Dooley, J.H., D. N. Lanning, C. Lanning, J.L. Fridley. 2008. Biomass baling into large square bales for efficient transport, storage, and handling. In: Baker, S.A., M.C. Bolding, W.D. Greene, eds. Proceedings of the 31st Annual Meeting of the Council on Forest Engineering, June 22- 25, 2008, Charleston, SC. Pg. 25-30

Biomass Baling into Large Square Bales for Efficient Transport, Storage, and Handling

Abstract:

Forest Concepts is working under a federal contract from the USDA CSREES SBIR program to develop better methods to collect and transport woody biomass collected from small-scale fuels reduction projects (ranging from residential lots to 20 acre parcels) in the true wildland-urban intermix zone (WUI). Our specific objective is to enable more of the material to be delivered to value-added uses including energy, biorefineries, and engineered wood products. A secondary objective is to enable diversion of urban greenwood from landfills and compost facilities. Our solution to the problem is to develop baling equipment and technology that enable woody biomass to be baled for transport on standard flatbed trucks, rail, and barge. The driving assumption behind our project is that baled biomass a) preserves user values as compared to onsite chipping, and b) facilitates delivery to more distant users than can be economically reached by chip vans or bulk bins. Another consideration for urban and suburban sources is that baling within residential areas produces lower noise, lower dust (and aerosols), and is potentially safer than chipping. We have designed and tested a baler that is a mid-size unit to demonstrate the concepts for equipment, on-site operations, and baled-material distribution logistics. Smaller and larger balers will be defined as appropriate for other markets.

Engineering factors for biomass baler design

Lanning, D.N., J.H. Dooley, M.C. DeTray, and C.N. Lanning. 2007. Engineering factors for biomass baler design. ASABE Paper No. 078047. ASABE. St. Joseph, MI. 10 pp.

Engineering factors for biomass baler design

Abstract:

Woody biomass is a core element of our nation's strategy to replace imported oil and natural gas with renewable resources. The challenge facing potential biomass users, however, is how to economically recover and transport the material from residential neighborhoods, urban centers and suburban landscapes to distant users. Our preferred solution is to bale the bulky biomass at the roadside to reduce the cost of at-site processing, increase payloads during hauling, and preserve physical properties for more appropriate feedstock processing by woody biomass users. A preliminary step towards this goal is determining the appropriate bale and baler size. We have deduced an appropriate target bale size and density for a baler intended to operate in the wildland urban intermix zone as part of forest health and fuels reduction projects. By using a bale size of 1.22 m x 0.79 m x 1.58 m with a green density of 373 Kg/m3 and an equilibrium density of 250 Kg/m3 we can maximize truck load potential while minimizing input energy. Furthermore, maximizing truck load potential increases the utilization opportunities for the biomass from residential scale fuel reduction projects by reducing the cost of material transportation.

Healing in a fire's aftermath

Anderson, R.C. and J.H. Dooley. 2006. Healing in a fire's aftermath. Resource: Engineering and Technology for a Sustainable World. 13(3):9-10. St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

Healing in a fire's aftermath

Abstract:

Evaluating Material Properties to Optimize Wood strands for wind erosion control

Copeland, N.S., B.S. Sharratt, R.B. Foltz, J.Q. Wu, J.H. Dooley (2006). Evaluating material properties to optimize wood strands for wind erosion control. ASABE Paper No. 062199. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. St. Joseph, MI. 9.

Evaluating Material Properties to Optimize Wood strands for wind erosion control

Abstract:

Wind erosion is a widespread problem in much of the western United States due to arid conditions and persistent winds. Fugitive dust from eroding land poses a risk to both environmental quality and human health. Since the advent of the Clean Air Act in 1971, ambient air quality standards have been set regulating particulate matter in the atmosphere. Agricultural straw has been widely used for erosion control, but there are numerous drawbacks to its use. In addition to the fact that it is a lightweight material and lacks stability during high wind events, there is growing concern over the introduction of noxious weeds to wildlands, chemical residues from pesticides, and risks associated with dust particles liberated from the shattering of straw elements during the application process. The efficacy of a wood strand material, a wood analog to straw, for wind erosion mitigation was investigated during this study. A series of wind tunnel tests were conducted to evaluate material properties of wood strands in terms of reducing total sediment loss and maintaining air quality. Results indicate that wood strands are stable at wind speeds of up to 18 m/s, while wheat straw is only stable at wind speeds of up to 6.5 m/s. At a wind velocity of 18 m/s, the straw, due to its instability, did not reduce soil loss; however, wood strands reduced total sediment loss and peak dust emissions by over 90% when compared to a bare soil.

Large rectangular bales for woody biomass

Dooley, J.H., J.L. Fridley, D.N. Lanning. M.S. DeTray. 2006 Large rectangular bales for woody biomass. Paper No. 068054. ASABE: St. Joseph, MI. p. 8.

Large rectangular bales for woody biomass

Abstract:

Woody biomass from wildfire prevention and forest health improvement projects is a significant source of feedstock for bio refineries, combustion energy facilities and other value-added uses. Baling into large rectangular bales offers increased bulk density and easier handling for local and long-distance transportation. By preserving large piece sizes, value potential is maximized. We conducted a problem analysis across the Western US that included surveys, interviews and site visits. Subsequent technology analyses and ideation resulted in a conclusion that prefers large rectangular bales as the handling unit.

Performance and assessment of wood strand erosion control materials among varying slopes, soil textures, and cover amounts

Yanosek, K.B., R.B. Foltz, and J.H. Dooley. 2006. Performance and assessment of wood strand erosion control materials among varying slopes, soil textures, and cover amounts. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 61(2):45-51.

Performance and assessment of wood strand erosion control materials among varying slopes, soil textures, and cover amounts

Abstract:

Two blends of manufactured wood strands with different lengths were tested for effectiveness in controlling erosion. Wood strand blends were tested on two soils, two slopes, and at three coverage amounts. Laboratory rainfall simulations were conducted to evaluate runoff and sediment loss. Wood strands were effective in delaying runoff, reducing runoff volume, and reducing sediment loss. There was no statistically significant difference between the two wood strand blends with respect to runoff or sediment loss. In comparison to bare soil with no cover, sediment loss was reduced by at least 70 percent for all cover amounts tested and among each soil type, slope and flow event. In comparison to estimates of sediment loss reductions due to agricultural straw (Burroughs and King, 1989), wood strand materials were equally effective on coarse grained soils and superior to straw on fine grained soils. In contrast to agricultural straw, manufactured wood strands are inherently weed and pesticide free. Consequently, wood-based materials may be a more appropriate material for erosion mitigation, especially in areas where introduction of non-native species is of great concern.

Appropriate technology biomass collection and handling systems for smallwood utilization

Dooley, J.H. 2005. Appropriate technology biomass collection and handling systems for smallwood utilization. USDA/CSREES/SBIR Final Phase I Report. Forest Concepts, LLC: Federal Way, WA. p. 29.

Appropriate technology biomass collection and handling systems for smallwood utilization

Abstract:

The continuum of forests and natural areas in need of fuel reduction thinning ranges from wilderness and working industrial forests to urban neighborhood greenbelts and overgrown residential lots. An object of this project is to characterize the problems associated with projects in the true wildland-urban intermix of residential lots to open spaces containing 20 acres or less. Our problem can be further decomposed into those properties that are wholly within urban areas - e.g., Berkeley and Santa Cruz, California; and those areas that border expansive public and private forests - e.g., Auburn, California and Pendleton, Oregon. Our goal is to synthesize optimal or at least more appropriate biomass collection and handling systems for these situations. In particular, we seek to specify functional objectives and design parameters for biomass handling systems that enable value-added utilization of biomass removed in the process of reducing fire risk and improving forest health.

The stimuli for the present project are the combined national priorities established by the National Fire Plan, the Healthy Forests Restoration Act, and the Energy Policy Act of 2005, with specific emphasis on their biomass provisions.

Field Performance of Long-Strand Wood Erosion Control Mulch and Agricultural Straw Under Natural Rainfall Events

Dooley, J.H., Lanning, D.N., and John E. Burks. 2005. Field Performance of Long-Strand Wood Erosion Control Mulch and Agricultural Straw Under Natural Rainfall Events. Technical Report. Forest Concepts, Federal Way, Wa.

Field Performance of Long-Strand Wood Erosion Control Mulch and Agricultural Straw Under Natural Rainfall Events

Abstract:

Best Value Contracting for Wood Based Watershed Improvement Materials

Dooley, J.H. 2004. Best Value Contracting for Wood Based Watershed Improvement Materials. White Paper. Forest Concepts, Federal Way, WA.

Best Value Contracting for Wood Based Watershed Improvement Materials

Abstract:

Forest Concepts, LLC is a federal contractor that is developing value-added uses for small diameter timber. Our objective is to create new jobs in rural communities through the manufacture and/or use of forest biomass that is a co-product of forest health and fuel reduction thinning programs.

Big Markets, Bigger Frustrations: Commercialization of Smallwood Products

Dooley, J.H. 2004. Big Markets, Bigger Frustrations: Commercialization of Smallwood Products. Presented at SmallWood 2004, Sacramento, CA.

Big Markets, Bigger Frustrations: Commercialization of Smallwood Products

Abstract:

Untapped markets for value-added smallwood and minimally processed wood products exceed 100,000 tons per year (4,500 truckloads) in the western United States. Although the tonnage is modest compared to the total biomass from forest health thinnings, the contribution to community sustainability and system economics is large. Purchase of this volume of roundwood under stewardship contracting would return over $4 million to the forest stewardship fund, enabling thinning of an additional 10,000 acres per year. Production of known products would add approximately 600 jobs to rural communities.

To-date, we have been able to capture only a fraction of the market. The minimum profitable producer price (MPPP) for smallwood products generally exceeds the price of non-wood products imported into the region. Agency customers at all levels are generally unaware of procurement preferences and incentives that are already on the books. Many design standards are ossified, and the process to modernize them can take years. Job reassignments and turnover among specifiers and buyers is rampant, making education difficult and costly. Isolated success stories show that the effort to capture the potential market is not a lost cause.

This presentation describes a range of smallwood products that have existing markets. Challenges to commercialization are drawn from our experience over the past seven years of commercial sales. A grass-roots activist approach is proposed as the short-term solution to market-based obstacles. We propose to educate citizen advisory councils, watershed groups, RAC leaders, and community councils who provide oversight, vigilance, and advice to local agency managers.

Comparison of erosion reduction between wood strands and agricultural straw

Foltz, R.B. and J.H. Dooley. 2003. Comparison of erosion reduction between wood strands and agricultural straw. Transactions of the ASAE 26(5):1389-1396. St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

Comparison of erosion reduction between wood strands and agricultural straw

Abstract:

Agricultural straw is widely used as an erosion mitigation measure on disturbed soils. It has several drawbacks, however, which include increasing intrinsic value, increasing transportation costs, weed source, pesticide residues, and dust. An alternative is wood strands manufactured from small diameter timber or low-value veneer. A study to determine the efficacy of wood strands as an alternative to straw showed that straw and two types of wood strands were equally effective in reducing erosion by over 98%. The authors believe that there are opportunities to exceed the erosion control performance of agricultural straw through the disciplined design of a wood analog. Work is continuing to improve the wood strand properties for further field testing.

Functional Requirements and Design Parameters for Restocking Coarse Woody Features in Restored and Enhanced Wetlands

Maschhoff, J.T. and J.H. Dooley. 2003. Functional Requirements and Design Parameters for Restocking Coarse Woody Features in Restored and Enhanced Wetlands. Presented at the 2003 Joint Regional Conference of the Society for Ecological Restoration, Northwest Chapter and the Pacific Northwest Chapter of the Society of Wetland Scientists, Portland, OR. March 27, 2003.

Functional Requirements and Design Parameters for Restocking Coarse Woody Features in Restored and Enhanced Wetlands

Abstract:

For many years landowners, biologists, engineers and others removed large woody materials such as logs, rootwads and stumps from wetlands, floodplains, and streams of the western United States and Canada. By the early 1970's scientists and engineers began to recognize the critical roles that wood plays in the life cycle of fish, amphibian, small mammal and bird species. Removal of wood greatly decreases the carrying capacity of wetlands and streams for many of the species currently protected under the Endangered Species Act. In recent years, creation, restoration and enhancement of wetlands has become common practice. Little consideration has been given to woody debris and other structural habitat in wetlands. This paper discusses functional objectives, common constraints, and design parameters for restocking woody habitat features in wetlands. Examples of completed projects from ELWd Systems are used to illustrate design parameters.

Technical products from small diameter timber for habitat enhancement and watershed restoration

Dooley, J.H. 2002. Technical products from small diameter timber for habitat enhancement and watershed restoration. In Small Diameter Timber: Resource Management, Manufacturing, and Markets, edited by M. F. Baumgardener. Spokane, WA: Washington State University Cooperative Extension.

Technical products from small diameter timber for habitat enhancement and watershed restoration

Abstract:

An under-appreciated outlet for small diameter roundwood is in watershed restoration, environmental, and habitat enhancement programs. Over $2 billion is spent in North America on habitat enhancement and watershed restoration each year. Of that amount, our estimate is that approximately $300 million is spent on materials that could be made from small diameter timber. Products manufactured from forest thinnings and subsequently placed back in the watershed completes the watershed cycle, and at the same time provides income for forest landowners, woods workers in rural communities, and environmental restoration contractors. This presentation details a number of technical products that can be manufactured from small diameter timber for use in erosion control, watershed restoration, and habitat enhancement.

Design and Application of Manufactured All-wood Hillslope Erosion Control Structures

Dooley, J.H. 2002. Design and Application of Manufactured All-wood Hillslope Erosion Control Structures. ASAE Paper 025014. St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

Design and Application of Manufactured All-wood Hillslope Erosion Control Structures

Abstract:

The FlowCheck™ hillslope erosion control structure was developed to make it easier to accomplish erosion control on burned-over lands, graded slopes and other disturbed areas. The scientific basis for sediment storage behind wood hillslope structures was developed by the U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station. Forest Concepts, LLC combined the best available science with disciplined design according to the Appreciative Design methodology. The resulting structures are technically sound, while providing an important use for underutilized small diameter timber. Utilization of smallwood from forest thinning, fuel reduction programs and forest management provides revenues to landowners and new jobs in rural areas. More than 600 of the new structures were deployed in forest and wildlands during the fall of 2001. The paper details the design process and first year performance across a range of applications. A method for estimating sediment storage and specifying the spacing for hillslope erosion control materials is provided.

Rural Economic Development through Integrated Smallwood Forest Products Centers

Dooley, J.H. 2002. Rural Economic Development through Integrated Smallwood Forest Products Centers. ASAE Paper 025006. St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

Rural Economic Development through Integrated Smallwood Forest Products Centers

Abstract:

Forest Concepts led the development of a conceptual plan for a smallwood manufacturing center. The Cascade Forest Resources Center (CFRC) is envisioned to be a forest products business park housing 7-10 businesses on a common site. Businesses would include both natural resource service providers and manufacturers. Manufacturers would link to a common woodyard and merchandiser. Gross revenues for participant companies may be in the range of $10 - 30 million per year. Forest Concepts conducted over 50 interviews and drew on its past experience to identify business opportunities that have a strong fit with the smallwood enclave concept. The business opportunities can leverage timber resources, access to markets, shared infrastructure and/or services of co-located businesses. This paper uses the Cascade experience as a case study for development of a new smallwood industry to capitalize on the shift to partial cuts, thinning and small diameter timber.

Technical Background: Engineered Log Jams.

Dooley, J.H. 2001. Technical Background: Engineered Log Jams. Technical Report. Forest Concepts, Federal Way, WA.

Technical Background: Engineered Log Jams.

Abstract:

Near-surface and subsurface sensing and mapping for site-specific operational decisions: Scoping Paper

Dooley, J.H. 2000. Near-surface and subsurface sensing and mapping for site-specific operational decisions: Scoping Paper. Presented to the Washington Precision Forestry Cooperative. June 19, Seattle.

Near-surface and subsurface sensing and mapping for site-specific operational decisions: Scoping Paper

Abstract:

Functional performance of engineered LWD for fish and wildlife habitat enhancement

Dooley, J.H., K.M. Paulson, J.T. Maschhoff, and K.R. Chisholm. 2000. Functional performance of engineered LWD for fish and wildlife habitat enhancement. ASAE Paper PNW2000-06. St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

Functional performance of engineered LWD for fish and wildlife habitat enhancement

Abstract:

An engineered large woody debris structure has been designed and developed for use in habitat and watershed restoration projects. The ELWd® structure was designed according to the Appreciative Design method to accommodate readily available wood materials, low-tech manufacturing methods, and volunteer-based installation. Technical features include a high organic surface area, structural integrity in an all-wood product, length proportional to channel properties and diameter proportional to flow depth. Equations for appropriate structure length and diameter as functions of channel properties were derived from the literature. The ELWd® structures have now been installed to provide a number of different functionalities including: scour pool formation, complex cover features, bank protection, flow routing, sediment storage and high flow refuge. The paper describes the design rationale and critical assumptions that resulted in the present configuration for ELWd® structures, and results of the first three years of in-stream use.

Application and functional performance of engineered LWD

Dooley, J.H., K.R. Chisholm and J.T. Maschhoff. 2000. Application and functional performance of engineered LWD. Extended Abstract. Proceeding of Wood in World Rivers Conference, October 2000. 125-129.

Application and functional performance of engineered LWD

Abstract:

An engineered large woody debris structure has been designed and developed for use in habitat and watershed restoration projects. The structure was designed according to the Appreciative Design method to accommodate readily available wood materials, low-tech manufacturing methods, and volunteer-based installation. Technical features include a high organic surface area, structural integrity in an all-wood product, length proportional to channel properties and diameter proportional to flow depth. ELWd® structures have been installed to provide a number of different functionalities including: scour pool formation, complex cover features, bank protection, flow routing, sediment storage and high flow refuge. The poster describes the design rationale and critical assumptions that resulted in the present configuration for ELWd® structures, and results of the first three years of in-stream use.

Recasting Industrial Problems for Use in an Academic Setting

Dooley, J.H. 1998. Recasting Industrial Problems for Use in an Academic Setting. ASAE Paper 985003. St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Agricultural Engineers

Recasting Industrial Problems for Use in an Academic Setting

Abstract:

Most industrial problems must be recast for use in undergraduate courses. Recasting often includes problem simplification and adaptation to the educational objectives of the course. Requirements for disclosure of proprietary or trade secret information must be avoided. A number of examples are provided in the fields of forest, agricultural and horticultural engineering.

Stakeholder Influence on Design of Aquatic Habitats

Dooley, J.H. and J.L. Fridley. 1998. Stakeholder Influence on Design of Aquatic Habitats. ASAE Paper 987023. St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Agricultural Engineers

Stakeholder Influence on Design of Aquatic Habitats

Abstract:

An empirical study was conducted across Washington State to explore the social dynamics of designers and other project participants involved in fish habitat improvement projects. We found compelling evidence of design being a social process that readily accommodated stakeholder needs. Traditional engineering decision making methods were not used in spite of the highly technical nature of many projects.

Engineered Large Woody Debris for Aquatic, Riparian and Upland Habitat

Dooley, J.H. and K.M. Paulson. 1998. Engineered Large Woody Debris for Aquatic, Riparian and Upland Habitat. ASAE Paper 982018. St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Agricultural Engineers

Engineered Large Woody Debris for Aquatic, Riparian and Upland Habitat

Abstract: